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Print out the ref names of any commits that are shown. If full is specified, the full ref name including prefix will be printed. If auto is specified, then if the output is going to a terminal, the ref names are shown as if short were given, otherwise no ref names are shown. The default option is short. If no --decorate-refs is given, pretend as if all refs were included.

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git-log(1) - Linux man page

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Limits the number of commits to show. Note that this is a commit limiting option, see below. Show only commits between the named two commits. Continue listing the history of a file beyond renames works only for a single file. Print out the ref names of any commits that are shown. If full is specified, the full ref name including prefix will be printed. The default option is short. Print out the ref name given on the command line by which each commit was reached.

Before the log message print out its size in bytes. Intended mainly for porcelain tools consumption. If git is unable to produce a valid value size is set to zero. Note that only message is considered, if also a diff is shown its size is not included. Show only commits that affect any of the specified paths.

To prevent confusion with options and branch names, paths may need to be prefixed with "-- " to separate them from options or refnames. Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the special notations explained in the description, additional commit limiting may be applied. Note that they are applied before commit ordering and formatting options, such as --reverse. Limit the commits output to ones with log message that matches the specified pattern regular expression.

Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep, --author and --committer instead of ones that match at least one. Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions instead of the default basic regular expressions.

Do not print commits with more than one parent. Show only commits which have at least or at most that many commits. Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge commit. This option can give a better overview when viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch, because merges into a topic branch tend to be only about adjusting to updated upstream from time to time, and this option allows you to ignore the individual commits brought in to your history by such a merge.

If pattern lacks? Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if the bad input was not given. If a -- separator is seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to limit the result. Omit any commit that introduces the same change as another commit on the "other side" when the set of commits are limited with symmetric difference. For example, if you have two branches, A and B , a usual way to list all commits on only one side of them is with --left-right see the example below in the description of the --left-right option.

It however shows the commits that were cherry-picked from the other branch for example, "3rd on b" may be cherry-picked from branch A. With this option, such pairs of commits are excluded from the output. List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric range, i.

For example, --cherry-pick --right-only A…B omits those commits from B which are in A or are patch-equivalent to a commit in A. More precisely, --cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges gives the exact list. A synonym for --right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges ; useful to limit the output to the commits on our side and mark those that have been applied to the other side of a forked history with git log --cherry upstream…mybranch , similar to git cherry upstream mybranch.

Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk reflog entries from the most recent one to older ones. With --pretty format other than oneline for obvious reasons , this causes the output to have two extra lines of information taken from the reflog. This option cannot be combined with --reverse.

See also git-reflog 1. But there are two parts of History Simplification , one part is selecting the commits and the other is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the history.

Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the final state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side branches if the end result is the same i.

Additional option to --full-history to remove some needless merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected commits contributing to this merge. When given a range of commits to display e. We shall call commits that modify foo!

In a diff filtered for foo , they look different and equal, respectively. In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume that you are filtering for a file foo in this commit graph:. The horizontal line of history AP is taken to be the first parent of each merge. The commits are:.

I is the initial commit, in which foo exists with contents "asdf", and a file quux exists with contents "quux". Initial commits are compared to an empty tree, so I is! B contains the same change as A. D sets foo to "baz". Its merge O combines the strings from N and D to "foobarbaz"; i. E changes quux to "xyzzy", and its merge P combines the strings to "quux xyzzy". The following settings are available. Otherwise, follow all parents. Root commits are compared to an empty tree, so I is!

Even if more than one side of the merge has commits that are included, this does not imply that the merge itself is! In the example, we get. E , C and B were all walked, but only B was! Ordinary commits are only included if they are! Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten: Along each parent, prune away commits that are not included themselves. This results in. Compare to --full-history without rewriting above. The same happened for C and N.

Note that without --full-history , this still simplifies merges: if one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other sides of the merge are never walked. First, build a history graph in the same way that --full-history with parent rewriting does see above. In the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents, and remove duplicates. Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent. The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to --full-history with parent rewriting.

The example turns into:. N 's parent list had I removed, because it is an ancestor of the other parent M. Still, N remained because it is!

P 's parent list similarly had I removed. Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the ancestry chain between the "from" and "to" commits in the given commit range. A regular D.. M computes the set of commits that are ancestors of M , but excludes the ones that are ancestors of D. This is useful to see what happened to the history leading to M since D , in the sense that "what does M have that did not exist in D ".

The result in this example would be all the commits, except A and B and D itself, of course. When we want to find out what commits in M are contaminated with the bug introduced by D and need fixing, however, we might want to view only the subset of D.. M that are actually descendants of D , i. This is exactly what the --ancestry-path option does.

Applied to the D.. M range, it results in:. The --simplify-by-decoration option allows you to view only the big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits that are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as! TREESAME in other words, kept after history simplification rules described above if 1 they are referenced by tags, or 2 they change the contents of the paths given on the command line. This option makes them appear in topological order i. This option is similar to --topo-order in the sense that no parent comes before all of its children, but otherwise things are still ordered in the commit timestamp order.

Output the commits in reverse order. Cannot be combined with --walk-reflogs. Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed commits. Similar to --objects , but also print the IDs of excluded commits prefixed with a "-" character. This is used by git-pack-objects 1 to build "thin" pack, which records objects in deltified form based on objects contained in these excluded commits to reduce network traffic.

Only useful with --objects ; print the object IDs that are not in packs. When omitted, the format defaults to medium. Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository configuration see git-config 1.

10 Essential Git Log Command Examples on Linux to View Commits

The simplest version of the log command shows the commits that lead up to the state of the currently checked out branch. These commits are shown in reverse chronological order the most recent commits first. You can force the log tool display all commits regardless of the branch checked out by using the —all option. The real power of the Git Log tool, however, is in its diversity.

See gittutorial 7 to get started, then see giteveryday 7 for a useful minimum set of commands. After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this page to learn what commands Git offers.

Limits the number of commits to show. Note that this is a commit limiting option, see below. Show only commits between the named two commits. Continue listing the history of a file beyond renames works only for a single file.

git-log(1) Manual Page

Continue listing the history of a file beyond renames works only for a single file. Print out the ref names of any commits that are shown. If full is specified, the full ref name including prefix will be printed. If auto is specified, then if the output is going to a terminal, the ref names are shown as if short were given, otherwise no ref names are shown. The default option is short. If no --decorate-refs is given, pretend as if all refs were included. The log. Print out the ref name given on the command line by which each commit was reached.

If full is specified, the full ref name including prefix will be printed. The default option is short. See git-shortlog 1. Note that this affects all diff-based output types, e.

For commits it shows the log message and textual diff.

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Comments: 1
  1. Gura

    The intelligible message

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