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Attitude shayari in Hindi

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Body size attitudes and body image form early in life, and understanding the factors that may be related to the development of such attitudes is important to design effective body dissatisfaction and disordered eating prevention interventions.

Children were interviewed and parents completed questionnaires assessing their body size attitudes and related behaviours. Socially prescribed stereotypical body size attitudes were evident in 4-year-old boys and girls; however, prevalence of body dissatisfaction was low in this sample. In boys, attributing negative characteristics to larger figures and positive characteristics to thinner figures were associated with fathers having more negative attitudes towards obese persons.

Attributing positive characteristics to larger figures by boys was associated with greater levels of paternal dietary restraint.

In girls, attributing positive characteristics to thinner figures was only associated with greater maternal dietary restraint. Socially prescribed stereotypical body size attitudes, that is, attributing negative characteristics to larger body sizes and positive characteristics to thinner body sizes, have been consistently observed among very young children [ 1 - 4 ].

A preference for thin bodies, body dissatisfaction, and dieting awareness have also been observed in pre-schoolers [ 7 ] and young children aged five to eight years [ 8 ]; which are potential risk factors for the development of disordered eating [ 9 ].

Thus, it is essential to identify environmental factors related to the early development of body size attitudes and body image so that effective prevention interventions can be developed to prevent the later onset of body dissatisfaction and eating problems. In addition to biological and psychological factors, modifiable social factors that include parent influences have been a major focus of theoretical and empirical investigations into the development of body image [ 10 ].

Theoretical and empirical literature suggests that fathers influence their children in numerous ways. Consequently, it might be expected that young sons would reflect the body size attitudes and body image of their fathers. Research investigating these relationships has mainly been conducted with pre- and early adolescent children and findings have been mixed.

McCabe and Ricciardelli [ 22 ] reported that, in adolescent boys, direct influences, such as pressure from fathers to lose weight and increase muscle, prospectively predicted use of strategies to lose weight, whilst pressure from both mother and father to increase muscle predicted use of strategies to increase muscle.

In addition, negative comments about weight by fathers have been shown to predict binge eating in their sons [ 23 ]. Given the dearth of existing knowledge in this area, better understanding the potential influences on the development of body size attitudes and body image in preschool age children is important as these are the formative years for these attitudes [ 2 , 3 ]. The transmission of attitudes of fathers to their sons and of mothers to their daughters may be of particular importance in considering a gender-linked model.

In this study, we aimed to address these research gaps. The first aim of this study was to replicate previous observations of positive and negative body size attitudes in young children, and to better understand the presence of body dissatisfaction in 4-year-old boys and girls. The second aim was to extend our understanding of body size attitudes in young children by exploring parental factors related to the body size attitudes and body image of 4-year-old boys and girls.

Specifically, we explored corresponding constructs in parents and children, including body size attitudes and body dissatisfaction. Despite not assessing dieting in the children, due to measurement difficulties at this young age, we explored parental dietary restraint due to the important relationships with child outcomes in previous research e. We hypothesised that 4-year-old boys and girls would attribute negative characteristics to larger figures and positive characteristics to thinner figures.

In addition, we aimed to examine the presence of child body dissatisfaction indicated by the discrepancy between their perceived current and ideal figure and the relationships between child body dissatisfaction and parental body dissatisfaction, anti-fat attitudes, and dietary restraint.

Finally, we anticipated that hypothesized relationships would be stronger between same-sex parent—child dyads than between opposite-sex dyads. This study examines data from the second assessment 16 children from the baseline sample moved and did not participate in the second assessment. Parents were generally well-educated with Parents completed a questionnaire that included age, education, and postcode, and weight and height from which Body Mass Index BMI was derived.

Anthropometric measures were also collected for children; the interviewer weighed and measured the children. This instrument was derived from two previously used measures of weight bias in young children: one that asked children to select a body figure size to illustrate a child with positive or negative qualities described in a short story format [ 27 ], and one that asked children to select a body figure size to illustrate children in particular social situations using a structured interview format [ 28 ].

The array of body figures used was adapted from the child figure rating scale of Tiggemann and Pennington [ 29 ]. Children were also able to choose the hair colour that closely matched their own, to assist children in identifying with the figures. Following pilot testing to identify the most appropriate questions for this age group, to assess negative body size attitudes, children were asked to respond to eight questions. Children were also read three age-appropriate illustrated stories about one child who was mean , one who was naughty , and one who was rude.

Children were then asked to select the figure to represent the child in each story [ 3 ]. Following pilot testing to identify the most appropriate questions for this age group, to assess positive body size attitudes, children were asked to select a body figure that corresponded to two questions: which figure they would invite to their birthday party; and which has lots of friends to play with.

Children were also read four brief age-appropriate stories about children who were good , happy , fun , and clever , and selected a figure to correspond to each [ 3 ]. Similar measures of stereotypical body size attitudes in children aged three to five [ 3 ] and children aged three to six [ 1 ] have shown comparable levels of internal consistency ranging between.

A pilot study was conducted with 62 children with a mean age of 4. Using the same five figure array described above, children selected the body figure they perceived to be most like themselves current and the one they would most like to be ideal. A current-ideal discrepancy score was calculated as current figure minus ideal figure, a well-documented method for assessing body dissatisfaction in older children e.

A score of 0 indicated body satisfaction, positive scores indicated a desire to be thinner, and negative scores a desire to be larger. These nine items were selected as they directly measure a stigmatizing attitude about individuals who are obese e. The items from these scales that were not included measured additional constructs, such as self-esteem, that were not considered relevant for this study.

Principal components analysis indicated that these items loaded on one component, which we named Negative Attitudes Towards Obese Persons. Responses are made on a mm visual analogue scale ranging from 0 strongly disagree to strongly agree , as pilot work indicated this format was less confronting than asking parents to indicate specific categories of agreement for their stigmatizing beliefs about obese individuals.

Scale items are available from authors. Three subscales of the Body Attitudes Questionnaire BAQ; [ 37 ] were combined to assess parent body dissatisfaction, the item Feeling Fat, the 8-item Disparagement, and the 8-item Salience subscales e.

Items are scored from 1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree. The item Restraint subscale of the Dutch Eating Behaviors Questionnaire [ 38 ] was used to assess frequency of parental dietary restraint e. This measure assesses cognitive restraint rather than dieting behaviours per se [ 39 ]. All other scales were normally distributed, thus, parametric analyses were conducted. Pearson for normally distributed variables and Spearman for non-normally distributed variables correlation analyses two—tailed were conducted to determine associations between body size attitudes, body image, and eating behaviours of fathers and mothers and the body size attitudes and body image of their sons and daughters, separately.

Among the For the In other words, children wanted to be larger than they perceived themselves to be, but they did not want to be the fattest figure. Percentage of boys and girls selecting figure sizes for perceived current and ideal body size. Of boys, Of girls, In both boys and girls, BMI z was not related to any of the assessed body size attitudes; consequently, child BMI z was not controlled for in analyses.

Consistent with our hypothesis, a larger figure selected for negative characteristics was correlated with greater paternal anti-fat attitudes. In boys, a thinner figure selected for positive characteristics was, as expected, associated with greater paternal anti-fat attitudes.

Contrary to expectations, a larger figure selected for positive characteristics was associated with greater levels of paternal dietary restraint. Given that the relationship between the figure selected by boys for positive characteristics and paternal dietary restraint was not in the anticipated direction, we explored the possibility that paternal BMI moderated this relationship, positing that if fathers were larger, boys may have more positive attitudes towards larger figures.

A post hoc hierarchical regression analysis was conducted using centred variables. However, the paternal BMI x dietary restraint interaction was not a significant predictor of figure for positive characteristics, indicating that regardless of paternal BMI there was a positive relationship between figure selected for positive characteristics and paternal dietary restraint. Further information is available from authors. This study is the first to include fathers in addition to mothers in an investigation of relationships between body size attitudes and body image of 4-year-old boys and girls and the attitudes and behaviours of their parents.

Our research supports previous observations of the presence of stereotypical positive and negative body size attitudes in young children. Boys and girls in our sample demonstrated weight bias that was consistent with stereotypical societal ideals by selecting thinner figures for positive characteristics and fatter figures for negative characteristics.

These findings are consistent with previous research that shows that preferences for thin bodies and biases against fatter bodies appear to be present by four years of age [ 1 , 3 , 4 , 7 ]. In the present study, when children perceive themselves to be larger, however, they tend to report less extreme body size attitudes. These findings are consistent with that of Holub [ 1 ] who observed that young children who perceived that they were heavier held fewer anti-fat attitudes relative to children who perceived they were lighter.

Additionally, in the present study, children who perceived that they were heavier reported a larger ideal figure, which at this age may be protective, and is consistent with previous findings in older age groups e. It is concerning that at four years old, some boys and girls who perceive they have a larger body size desire to be thinner; potentially setting the stage for early onset negative self-perceptions and weight loss behaviours.

Notably, however, the majority of 4-year-old girls and boys were satisfied with their body size. Previous research has established that body dissatisfaction is at much higher prevalence in girls and boys by the time of early adolescence [ 42 ]. Future research is required to identify critical periods for body dissatisfaction in childhood and adolescence. The finding of low overall body dissatisfaction in our study presents an interesting contrast to the extent to which children demonstrated weight bias.

As hypothesized, in boys, selection of fatter figures for negative characteristics and selection of thinner figures for positive characteristics were associated with greater paternal anti-fat attitudes. These findings suggest that even in very young children, body size attitudes correspond with parental endorsement of social stereotypes surrounding body size. Although causal relationships between variables cannot be assumed from cross-sectional data, a likely explanation is that boys learn negative attitudes about obese persons and positive attitudes about thinner bodies from their parents, especially fathers.

A possible explanation may be that fathers are restraining their eating as a means of reducing body fat, whilst simultaneously desiring an increase in muscle mass, in line with the muscular societal ideal for males e. An explanation for the limited findings between mothers and girls in the present study may be that the body size attitudes and body image of girls are being influenced to a greater extent by other sources, such as media, dolls, or peers, from a young age.

Consistent with this suggestion is the increased exposure of girls to extremely thin dolls, such as Barbie [ 45 ], and cartoons, such as Cinderella, which may convey the societal thin ideal [ 46 ]. Interestingly, the findings from this study revealed that for boys, only paternal variables were associated with their body size attitudes, whereas for girls, only maternal variables were associated with their body size attitudes, supporting a gender-linked model of the transmission of body size attitudes.

Replication of these findings in future research has a number of important implications for the design and implementation of body image interventions for parents to enhance positive body image in young children.

Prevention resources for parents may need to assist them in conveying body size messages that will support positive body image in their children. In light of the relationship between greater maternal dietary restraint and selection of thinner figures to represent positive characteristics, suggesting possible internalization of the societal thin ideal by girls, prevention resources may need to inform mothers that their dietary restraint may be associated with attitudes that make their daughters vulnerable to body image problems in the future.

Importantly, replication of the current findings and extension of research to examine the role of other influences, such as sociocultural pressure from sources including media, is necessary to better inform the development of such prevention resources.

These findings must be considered in light of some limitations. This is a cross-sectional study, thus, causal statements about relationships between variables cannot be made. Longitudinal studies are required to examine prospective relationships. In 4-year-old children measurement issues also arise. In particular, although calculating the perceived current-ideal discrepancy to indicate level of body dissatisfaction is a well-established method for measuring body dissatisfaction in children as young as 5-years-old [ 8 ], it has seldom been used with 4-year-old children.

In future research in young children, it would be valuable to further explore age appropriate measures of body image attitudes. Furthermore, in future it would be valuable to include a specific measure of desire for muscularity in fathers, and potentially a measure of perceived muscularity. Finally, our sample was on average better educated and of higher socio-economic status than the general Australian population.

Therefore, care needs to be taken in generalizing our results to other samples, either in Australia or around the world.

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Body size attitudes and body image form early in life, and understanding the factors that may be related to the development of such attitudes is important to design effective body dissatisfaction and disordered eating prevention interventions. Children were interviewed and parents completed questionnaires assessing their body size attitudes and related behaviours. Socially prescribed stereotypical body size attitudes were evident in 4-year-old boys and girls; however, prevalence of body dissatisfaction was low in this sample.

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During the course of advancement the individual gets inclinations to react to objects. These scholarly subjective systems are called attitudes. Attitude is a persevering assessment—constructive or contrary—of individuals, items, and thoughts. In this way, attitudes are evaluative proclamations or judgments concerning items, individuals, or occasions. Attitude has three segments—cognizance, fondness, and conduct of individuals. A specific attitude of a man can be founded on one part or the other.

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